Music videos are so 80s/90s, right? They belong with the era when MTV screened wall-to-wall vids instead of 'reality' TV? Try telling that to the millions who bought Gangnam Style; were they really simply loving the music? 1.6bn (and still climbing) have viewed the video on YT, not to mention the many re-makes (school eg, eg2), viral ads + celeb link-ups (even political protest in Seoul) - and it doesn't matter how legit it is, this nightmare for daydream Beliebers is making a lot of money, even from the parodies + dislikes. All this for a simple dance track that wouldn't have sounded out of place in 1990 ... but had a fun vid. This meme itself was soon displaced by the Harlem Shake. Music vids even cause diseases it seems!
This blog explores every aspect of this most postmodern of media formats, including other print-based promo tools used by the industry, its fast-changing nature, + how fans/audiences create/interact. Posts are primarily written with Media students/educators in mind. Please acknowledge the blog author if using any resources from this blog - Mr Dave Burrowes

Tuesday, 14 December 2010

Loaning Media Equipment: Guidelines

Each of you will be issued with a copy of the document below to sign, show to (and discuss with) your parents, and return to me (once they're all in I'll photocopy and return them to you - please don't fold the sheet).
We have a lot of you seeking cameras at any one time, so need to make sure they're kept in constant circulation so everyone has fair and equal access and can plan shoots without having to worry about getting cameras.

As noted on the bottom of this, the 10 sets of earphones I bought just last year have all disappeared, so there will not be any to borrow - you really do need to bring your own set with you each day. You can buy basic earphones from £1.99 on Amazon.

Loaning Media Equipment - Guidelines (2)                                                            

Monday, 13 December 2010

Look at other schools' blogs+videos

I've got links with several centres across the UK whose students are following the same briefs as yourselves. You'll recall how vital audience feedback is for coursework; this is your chance to give some considered, constructive feedback on these students' productions, with the knowledge that this will enhance your own prospects of getting reciprocal feedback.
Give some due thought to this, and phrase any critique you may have in a manner you'd be happy for someone to comment on your own work. Discussing aspects you think could be improved/developed is fine, tho' don't forget to note anything you like too!!!
Some students include specific questions on their blogs; have a read before viewing or commenting.

There's a lot you can pick up from others' blogs. This is a good example, a bit of ingenious innovation from some students at a school in Kent (watch the YouTube vid): (Feel free to add comments to posts other than the final cuts)

You can access a range (8) of group blogs at - each group has included specific questions they'd like addressed in their posts.

6 more music video productions:


Some very interesting work amongst these - should give you a clear sense of the standards you've got to meet ... and beat!!!

Friday, 10 December 2010

YOUR production co's...

The idents you created for the AS productions were a real strength of that work; the reel of these that John has compiled and which has been playing on the school screens is a great representation of your achievements as Media students, and was noted too by the exam board - one reason why they've picked us to be used for the training of examiners, and setting of national grade standards, this January.
So, its time to get thinking about new company names and new logos. I'll leave it up to you whether these are animated/film idents or an image - either would be appropriate (though you do need to be able to use a still image as a logo, so if you're doing a moving image ident, bear this in mind). You can re-use last year's if you wish and it seems appropriate.

There are several types of company you are effectively acting as:
  • record label: only really appropriate if you're working on older material, so can argue this would be a subsidiary or offshoot set up to handle the re-release (but still also reference the actual label/rights holder, eg Blah Records, a subsidiary of Sony Music)
  • music video production company: some of these will deal with the full promotional package, but its just as likely that the print and video sides would be handled by different companies; do some research into music video production companies to reference here
  • digipak design + ad design:again, these could be separate companies or combined within house - what you do with this will be down to a combination of research (finding examples of real-life companies who do this and seeing how specialist or broad their offering is) and group size (do you each want to create your own company?)
Given the crisis the digitisation of music has caused for the music industry, budgets for every aspect of marketing and promotion have been slashed; companies offering complete packages (along the lines of what you will be creating in due course) should be able to undercut the prices charged by separate companies dealing with each aspect (video, packaging, ads).

TARGETS: By Thursday of next week have...
  1. thought up name/s for any company/ies
  2. have still images for each
  3. have filmed moving image where appropriate (this might be in draft/rough cut for now)
  4. have researched real companies who tackle each stage of the process you're now engaged in
  5. have reflected this in your blogs
In your last pre-Xmas lesson we will give each production group team some lesson time to re-pitch their idea, using any visual aids felt useful; be thinking about what specific feedback you're after, and have a good go at gathering in some shots to help illustrate planned locations/props/cast/mise-en-scene etc. You could incorporate a moodboard on your band/act, and some detail on your research so far (the band; their vids; existing aud; your target aud; their record label; their online presence + contact with fanzines/label etc...)

    Tuesday, 7 December 2010

    Barbra Streisand: 13B vid

    Now on YouTube...

    Nicely done!

    the retro boom

    This post from last year would be useful to reference when considering why a vid for an older track makes sense...

    Sunday, 5 December 2010

    Oddball Beatles lip sync

    Noticed this from browsing the Media Guardian site just now (article:; it speaks for itself...

    Nearly as odd:

    Monday, 29 November 2010

    Blog tasks guide [draft]

    Typing up a complete guide will take some time, so in the meantime here's a list of a few blog posts (and therefore tasks) to be considering. The idea here is to collaborate more, but to clearly identify individual contributions - agree a colour code system where the writing/contribution of each person in a group is consistently denoted by a clear colour heading. You wouldn't each be doing each of these from scratch, but agreeing within a group who tackles what...

    1. THE TASK(S!!)

    Sunday, 28 November 2010

    Kanye West: 35min vid

    The idea of an extended music vid, effectively as a short film isn't new - John Landis' work for Michael Jackson's Thriller itself built on The Beatles' films, which could be viewed as a series of sketched built around multiple prototype music vids. Kanye West's effort, the 35min Runaway, has split web opinion, currently accruing 29,055 likes/5,101 dislikes after 5,389,189 views at and another 28,165 likes/2,890 dislikes from 6,331,377 viewings at (just some of the uploads on YouTube alone; its also on his official site and many more).
    The bottom line - its working wonders as a promotional tool. even includes a live twitter feed on what people are saying about it, stark evidence of its impact.

    Lady Gaga via Leeds - the Bad Romance meme

    UPDATE 22ND FEB 2011
    Noticed more parodies and even a Lg make-up how-to; links, not embeds, follow:
    (Bad Romance Parody - gets a little crude towards the end)
    (LadyGagaVEVO - lots more links; this is behind-the-scenes of Telephone vid)
    (LadyG make-up how-to)

    YouTube is opening up opportunities for all sorts of new acts; these guys have hit the charts with their Gillian mcKeith Song after getting played by C.Moyles and others; here is Brett Domino's take on Bad Romance, one of the 1st videos we looked at this year:

    At some point I'll add in notes from work on LadyG, but for now a few further examples of how - just like the Britney track - this single has provoked a range of online responses from widely divergent genres.
    This idea, of taking music from one (typically non-credible, poppy) genre and transplanting it to a radically differing, essentially binary opposite (viewed by its fans as highly credible, complex music) genre is not new (hip hop acts have been trawling through all sorts of unlikely sources for decades, with a sample from a 50s track, Apache, by instrumental act The Shadows forming the bedrock of many early rap tunes). The rise and ever-increasing accessibility of digital media, and the web as a carrier for the output of digitally produced media, has seen this mushroom.
    Another iconic example: Kylie Minogue. She has skilfully repositioned herself away from the bubblegum image she started out with, partially through a capacity to pastiche herself; refract herself through a postmodern lens - a great example being her reading her famously simplistic debut single's lyrics as mock-poetry:

    ...But back to LadyG...
    Search YouTube for the track and you'll find a plethora of versions; the following are just a small sample:

    These guys are unashamedly trying to use LadyG's colossal fanbase to generate interest - without the keywords lady gaga bad romance its unlikely many people would ever come across them...

    There are many more: gothic, power metal, death metal drum tracks ... the list goes on
    Have you come across (m)any tracks that have generated so many covers? (Add a comment with info if so!)

    'Video Exclusive' on C4

    Interesting to see music vids retain some allure even for our terrestrial broadcasters: C4 often do this for post-watershed vids too, but I notice in today's schedules a programme simply listed as "Video Exclusive", described as The Wanted. Exclusive first play of boy band The Wanted's next single Lose My Mind.
    Once again, this forms just part of a wider media strategy: The Wanted are also due to appear on tonight's X Factor.

    Thursday, 25 November 2010

    Vids for older tracks: Beatles

    The Beatles have provided the perfect example of how record companies are looking to wring sales out of their back catalogue (cf. the long tail theory). They timed the week the X Factor had a Beatles theme to coincide with their finally allowing iTunes to release their back catalogue - but only at a higher price than anyone else. They've released a series of teaser vids for many of these, one eg below:

    See also

    Barbra Streisand

    By a curious coincidence, the BarbraS track was used over a montage at the end of the 9-930 Autumnwatch show on BBC2 tonight...

    Monday, 15 November 2010

    13B Lip Sync track

    We had 5 tracks pitched for filming a music vid: Katrina and the Waves' "Walking on Sunshine"; Mike Posner's "Cooler Than Me"; Duck Sauce's "Barbra Streisand"; a Paolo Nutini track; and Taylor Swift's "You Belong To Me". The "Barbra Streisand" track was setlled on, with planning now underway for the shoot. The official music video is embedded below (from, not YouTube, which I think you can access under student logins):

    Duck Sauce - Barbra Streisand
    You'll see the design of this vid could easily inspire tribute versions, an attractive idea for most acts as this acts rather nicely as a means of generating viral marketing: marketing the band do not pay for, and which does not have the appearance of an advertising campaign. The success of the Yeo Valley (milk/dairy company) rap, (one of several similar ideas: see this Ontario vid, + rather awful raps such as this), played exclusively in the X Factor ad breaks (at a campaign cost of £5m) has worked well like this - the YouTube video has been widely emailed and the company have been 'forced' by Facebook campaigns etc to release the song as an Xmas single. The "Barbra Streisand" video also features a daft dance move, another trick which can help encourage a video to be reconstructed, reflimed and posted (eg as 'responses' to YouTube uploads) online, a tactic used as far back as Adam and the Ants' "Prince Charming" video.

    Thursday, 11 November 2010

    Artist2: Cher

    See Chris' blog for his PowerPoint and post.

    Cher's career in a way reflects the key trend in the contemporary music industry: long-established artists maintaining an older audience picked up over their careers whilst also seeing the digital revolution helping them to gain a younger, secondary audience.
    Cher is notorious for her drastic usage of plastic surgery to defy the aging process, becoming the oldest woman, at 52, to reach no.1 in the contemporary charts with 1998's "Believe". Her work, her very body, is highly contestible, and would evoke radically different responses from a feminist and a post-feminist, arguments we looked at with Lady Gaga's "Bad Romance" video. Her hyper-femininity being achieved through such artificial means also brings to mind Judith Butler's provocative concept of the performativity of gender: the idea that gender does not exist in nature, but is simply a concept we learn to apply and 'perform'. This has made Butler an important thinker within 'queer theory', but could also help explain why Cher has attained iconic status within the gay community.
    (This last phrase, gay community, itself contains ideological values: are all gay people the same (homogenous)?! Our language, especially as expressed through our media, are constantly loaded with subtle value judgements we tend to think little about. When an idea is seen as common sense; that it would be ridiculous to even question it, we say that it has achieved hegemonic status ... a concept we'll explore in more detail later in A2)
    Over her long career Cher has created some hallmark singles:
    • 1989's "If I Could Turn Back Time" was instantly banned by MTV for her risque criss-crossed belts costume (and features unsubtle phallic imagery: Cher sits astride the long artillery barrels [here we've just applied some basic Freudian psychoanalysis, a common approach within Media and especially Film Studies]). The ambiguity of her gender performance, to use Butler's concept, is seen in the juxtaposition of her feminine long hair and thickly applied make-up, plus her semi-nude attire (Laura Mulvey's male gaze...), with her tattoos and manly biker's jacket. The heterosexual eroticism of the video, however, is somewhat undermined by the campness of the 'in the navy' backdrop!
    • 1998's "Believe" brought the vocoder into mainstream pop, later to be (ab)used by the likes of Victoria Beckham. This intentionally distorts the voice, creating a robotic, mechanistic effect - not to be confused with auto-tuning, source of a recent X Factor scandal, which computer processes any voice to put it into the correct key and essentially can make any terrible singer sound quite good and in tune! Again, Cher's physicality is key to the video. The nightclub setting also takes on a camp aspect, as does her headdress, which helps her appeal not just to a mainstream pop audience but also a gay audience. Explicitly referencing gay culture has been a strategy used to gain greater credibility by Madonna as well, who, for example, took 'voguing' from gay clubs onto MTV and into mainstream consciousness, and has worked with provocative gay artists such as Robert Mapplethorpe. (He caused huge controversy with works such as 'Piss Christ'; using such an artist helps Madonna render his edginess as part of her image)

    This video is perhaps not as iconic as the other two, but is interesting in itself (good choice Chris!). Again, notwithstanding her determination to achieve an ideal of feminine beauty (feminists have written about how our misogynistic media have pushed women to aspire take up less space in starving themselves and inflict grievous injury upon themselves in the way of plastic surgery - not an analysis which most post-feminists would necessarily concur with), there is an ambiguity to her gender performance. Her deep voice sits somewhat at odds with the woman whose legs seem to be the focus of the prevailing long shot on her. She is first seen in a slow pan up and over her body, a veritable caress from the camera. She is cleverly affecting a humbleness which helps to appeal to a mainstream American audience: sitting on the steps of a greyhound bus, part of the iconography of America, familiar to a global audience as well through countless TV shows, films and music videos (remember Axl Rose stepping off a Greyhound bus in the diegetic intro to "Welcome to the Jungle"?)
    Black and white is used to affect a timeless, classic feel, with the shots of the diner, seemingly featuring a youthful Cher, signifying the 50s, a period many Americans look to with real affection: this was pre-Vietnam War, and seen as a golden age when there seemed to be a clear set of universal values. This is a fantasy, but a powerful one. Weezer's "Buddy Holly" is a great example of a postmodern text which reflects this: it plants the band inside footage from Happy Days, a 70s TV show which affectionately reconstructed the 50s featuring a 90s band! Its a good example of director Spike Jonze's style (and is featured on the 2DVD set of his work now in the Library and available to loan!).

    Its not often I'll embed anything related to the loutish Mr Moyles, but here's an example of the technology in action

    Coursework Pitches

    This is homework for Monday 22nd November. We may still be finishing up on the lip-sync practice, but should be ready to deliver these for the 22nd.

    See the earlier post for more on the practice of pitching.

    By now we've looked at a wide range of music videos from different artists, eras, directors and genres. We need now to start planning our actual productions, the 1st step being coming up with and pitching an idea.
    I cannot stress enough how important it is you make every effort to create a convincing pitch no matter how much you may have been discussing one particular track/idea with a classmate. If your pitch is considered to be unconcvincing, you will be asked to re-do it until you have presented a pitch which can compete with the others presented.

    If your pitch does persuade others to follow your idea, you've set yourself up as director within the production team, and should take a leading role in the key creative decisions that emerge. A producer, to deal with logistics; cinematographer, to lead on shot selection and filming (and perhaps mise-en-scene); and an editor are other key roles that can be divided up.
    I will consider groups of 4 given the amount of work involved in creating a convincing music video - think roughly double the number of shots you took for your AS productions! - but only if individual roles and responsibilities are clearly defined so that individual contributions are clear, evident and easy to track.

    Once we're through the pitches and have formed groups, further research and planning can be much more tightly focussed on genre/s, specific bands, directors and styles (see the blog entry on The Pixies for examples of the minimalist approach for instance). You will be issued with a detailed A2 Coursework Guide on Monday 29th Nov which sets out a list of possible blog posts. Central to your Research and Planning, as with your AS work, is the need to be able to explore how your creation uses the codes and conventions of real media texts, including a firm grasp of the institutional contexts of production, the impact of new media and digitisation on the industry (production, distribution and exhibition), and the blurring of the lines between 'UGC' and professional productions, as well as the media language used.

    As has been flagged up, I highly recommend the Money For Nothing book on the history of the music vid, which also contains a lot of useful analysis (plus very many specific examples you wouldn't otherwise be aware of) of trends, styles and movements within the format.

    Some guidelines for your pitch:
    • you have just 90secs to pitch in
    • up to 3 mins will then be allowed for Q+A (we want to fit all in to enable time for decisions to be made, though decisions can be deferred if more time is needed - I'll film your pitches and hopefully upload to YouTube that evening)
    • track should be short-ish! The longer the track, the more filming/editing required
    • there cannot be any swearing or strong sexual references
    • you must have considered the core and secondary audiences you are targeting
    • location is often key - can you gain access to the location/s you have in mind?
    • try and scout these out in advance and provide imagery to illustrate
    • comparability: which existing vids can you compare your idea to? (helps your audience to get a handle on what you're thinking of) Whether its a film or music video pitch, its always crucial to make some comparisons
    • go multimedia: have you got an mp4/mpg you can use alongside your basic pitch? perhaps you can use the annotation tools available within YouTube when you upload a video?
    • you could be ambitious and incorporate an animatic (frames from a storyboard uploaded to film, with you commenting over these)
    • don't discount the various ideas you pitched for Cars, People are Strange etc - many of these were quite excellent and would work brilliantly as actual videos
    • as you're preparing your pitch, keep asking yourself if your planned content will help persuade a sceptical audience to want to work on your idea
    • try to anticipate questions
    • you could try to engage and draw in your audience with a question of your own!
    • read over the marking criteria in advance; you could flag up how your idea will hit all the points covered in the mark scheme
    • be concise
    • be precise
    • employ media language!!!

    LipSync Practice Pitch

    This is homework for Monday 15th November.

    Your challenge is to pick a track, without strong language or strong sexual references; think up a concept or narrative approach that can be shot in and around school; and pitch your vision to the class.
    You have just 60secs in which to pitch, which includes any snippets of the track you wish to play - we do need to hear some of it for your pitch to make any sense!
    Depending on your own views, each class will pick either one or two of these to film, which we'll look to do in lesson time. Your idea must be achievable!
    Whichever pitches are successful, everyone will deliver some lines to camera to gain some lip-sync practice (even if you personally won't appear in your own actual video its vital you can empathise with the challenges your performers will face, and can provide clear direction to help), so no matter how abstract your idea, make sure it does incorporate some singing to camera! (and yes, that does mean instrumentals are ruled out)

    (A 'pitch' is an occasion when producers briefly summarize their proposal to busy executives (sometimes to the band themselves), in the hope of winning a commission/the contract for producing the video. It is always a sales pitch!)
    Read more on pitching: guide; actor Peter Capaldi; wiki;   

    You can also see some examples from Latymer students doing just this here.

    Most of you will be familiar with The Apprentice, which seems to feature a bunch of cretins proving how awful they are at business and dealing with human beings. Each week they have to pitch to sell some product ... and thats exactly what you're doing: selling your idea. Here's an example from The Apprentice:

    And here's a satire on pitching - NB: contains some strong language

    Thursday, 21 October 2010

    A few vids worth looking at

    First up, one from our very own Chris Lawrence...

    This could be an interesting possibility for the A2, as an additional (not the main) production: mixing performance with film ( from your own) footage. Excellent bit of thinking outside the box there Chris!

    Also thinking outside the box is Andy Rehfeldt; I've embedded his Abba as death metal remix below, but he also does this the other way round, eg Metallica as smooth jazz!

    The copyright in his tracks would presumably be rather ambiguous, but you could nonetheless contact him and ask about using a track for a video (the board simply requires that you evidence your attempts to gain copyright clearance or permission).

    Another postmodern take on the form now (with thanks to Mr Handley for bringing this to my attention!), a fine Father Ted pastiche of the lame Eurovision performance:

    And finally for now, a practice vid from Latymer students, which may just be something you'll be doing very shortly after returning from the half-term hols!

    Any thoughts/comments on any of these?

    Tuesday, 19 October 2010

    FinalCut experiments - vid eg

    I've embedded below a clip from another centre where students have experimented with the chroma key function available in software such as FCE (an aspect JonnyH + Joel have been exploring recently). BRIEF videos such as this form useful evidence of your R+P, will help later with the evaluation, plus with various aspects of A2 exam Q1a (DCRUP), though you'd be advised to include info on software within these.
    I am looking into buying some screen recording software to this end.

    Sunday, 17 October 2010

    Early History1: Panorams

    I'll be adding some detail on the history and development of the music video format in due course - you can of course start reading up for yourself using the book suggested: "Dancing in the Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture" by Andrew Goodwin
    The video embedded below showcases an early archetype of video jukebox (one of several that emerged and disappeared many decades before MTV was even thought of), the Panoram...
    Many of the suggested links alongside this video on YouTube point to clips from 'soundies' - sound in the movies was still a new, emerging phenomenon in the early 1930s, with musicals swiftly emerging as a key format/genre for Hollywoods industrial-style studios.

    Try some simple research to discover in what year sound was first used in the cinema and the first 'talkie' or 'soundie' released - it does involve music, and a 'blacking up' process which wasn't controversial at a time when the US segregated the races but which is considered unquestionably racist today...

    Friday, 15 October 2010

    Cars (2nd pitch exercise)

    Following up on our efforts with The Doors' "People Are Strange" today we used Gary Numan's classic "Cars" as stimulus ... with some genuinely impressive ideas emerging!
    We didn't get time with 13D to look at the actual video; this is embedded below, followed by the lyrics, then a summary of some (don't have enough time to type in all!) of the ideas that emerged, some examples of cover versions and some links for further reading. It was generally felt (and I certainly agreed) by 13B that their ideas would work much better than the actual video - remember though that this was 1979, some years before the success of MTV made shooting a music video almost an automatic choice for any singles release. The generally basic look reflects the artist's techno-driven style and the technological limitations for videos shot and edited on low budgets (an Indie label released this song).

    POST OUTLINE: After the video; the lyrics; snapshots of your ideas (+ some of mine), examples of covers (remember, you could always look to commission your own!); some useful links for further reading on this track.


    *** LYRICS ***

    Here in my car
    I feel safest of all
    I can lock all my doors
    It's the only way to live
    In cars

    Here in my car
    I can only receive
    I can listen to you
    It keeps me stable for days
    In cars

    Here in my car
    Where the image breaks down
    Will you visit me please?
    If I open my door
    In cars

    Here in my car
    I know I've started to think
    About leaving tonight
    Although nothing seems right
    In cars

    *** Released : August 1979 ***


    There are many, many covers of this - just a few examples below. Numan himself notes:
    This song has found new life and given Numan a great deal of exposure to another generation through covers by Fear Factory (with Numan singing on the track and appearing in the video), Nine Inch Nails, Dave Clarke, Kool G Rap & DJ Polo, The Judybats, and Tia. Says Numan: "It's been a most amazing thing, really, to keep hearing about the people that are doing cover versions. I was trolling around the other day for something totally unrelated and I came across a Youtube of Courtney Love's band, Hole, doing 'Cars.' I just thought, 'Yeah.' And there's a lot of that. It's very cool, and I don't take it for granted at all. I'm so totally blown away with a big grin on my face every time I hear that someone's done something like that. So it's not as if I'm kind of arrogantly expecting it. Quite the opposite." [Source]

    Numan covers it himself in this ad:

    Daft Punk

    Synthpro - better audio quality at Myspace

    Fear Factory

    With Nine Inch Nails

    Technologic [a cute little pussycat DJ!]

    Blue Man Group

    Main Wiki on Gary Numan
    Wiki on the song
    Covering Cars with actual cars []
    Again on this ad [technorati]
    Bass tabs for the song guide to and analysis of the song/lyrics
    RollingStone interview about Cars etc
    Guide to playing on synth
    Gary Hunter cover

    Music vids as ads

    We've discussed 2 examples, both of which used the expensive but prestigious ad-breaks within Saturday's X Factor to launch the campaign. In each cases we can see a company looking to extend (or consolidate) its reach to the lower end of the youth market, 15-24, with humour the main tool used to achieve this.

    I came across these examples by reading the Media Guardian online - can i urge you all again to flick through this from time to time...

    We can take from this the widening use of the music video format; as well as commercials for bands/singles/albums/tours/merchandise, as well as 'art films', we are seeing the form used within advertising - an ad trying to disguise its status as an ad!

    In the 2nd example we get a straightforward use of juxtaposition which you could consider yourselves: the urban, bling-heavy rap set and performed in a farm by supposed farmer types wearing country clothing! Nice effects with the tractor, the owl and quirky shots of cows all thrown in.

    The song dates back to 1980, so as well as our core youth target audience we're looking at clear appeal to a secondary nostalgic mature youth market, 35-44.

    As Media Monkey notes:

    At first glance Monkey was mightily impressed with the breathtakingly fresh, unique and offbeat approach the ad agency BBH had taken creating dairy company Yeo Valley's first TV ad. It was a a well-planned debut: Create an ad of a bunch of young "farmers" performing a rap homage to their trade and hog an eye-wateringly expensive two-minute slot in The X Factor's first live knockout round on Saturday. Except it seems that the idea for the campaign may not be that new at all. It seems a Canadian TV campaign from a year ago, the "Milk Rap" by the Dairy Farmers of Ontario, which aimed to make milk a bit "cooler" (strapline: "It doesn't get any cooler than this") featured a bunch of, you guessed it, young hip farming typers rapping about the virtues of the white stuff.
    Spot the difference, you decide: here's the Yeo Valley TV ad and the Canadian Milk TV ad .

    There's a nice link from this into our 2nd stimulus song: Cars...

    Wednesday, 6 October 2010

    Michel Gondry

    We will look at Michel Gondry's varied work as one of two director case studies.
    Michel Gondry (born May 8, 1963) is a French film, commercial and music video director and an Academy Award-winning screenwriter. He is noted for his inventive visual style and manipulation of mise en scène. [SOURCE: wiki]
    I've added a links list to this blog if you want to explore Gondry in advance of any November lessons

    Thursday, 22 July 2010

    Summer task

    I'm not going to ask you to be slaving away over the summer; we all deserve a good break!
    However, it would help us to hit the ground running if you had turned your mind, even quite briefly, to the topic of your A2 coursework. To this end I'd like you to do two things (and I'll also mention any AS coursework resubmissions):
    1. Make brief notes on at least 10 examples of music videos, from any genre or any era. You're looking to build up a knowledge of codes and conventions beyond your existing knowledge. I will email you a detailed worksheet you can use, though use the 2-column sheet handed out in June (and available on this blog) if you wish.
    2. Put together notes on an idea for a new music video for a track of your choice, enough to be able to discuss the idea on the first day back. If you want to get some early feedback on an idea feel free to email me; I'll check my email from time to time over the summer. Remember: no explicit language or sexually explicit references!
    Anyone considering resubmitting revised coursework: if you email me a detailed breakdown of any improvements you think would advance your mark I'll look over it and add suggestions of my own. Email me if you want a copy of your marksheet to see where you lost marks

    I'm looking forward to an interesting year in 2010-11 and to see what weird and wonderful music videos will emerge, which may include giant slugs in sleeping bags and fight scenes between Santa and Jesus if your practice pitches are anything to go by! Have a good summer, and thanks for all your effort this past year!

    Tuesday, 20 July 2010

    Strobe lighting

    Joel asked about the use of strobe lighting and any prohibition on this. I had a look into this and found the following:

    Most people with photosensitive epilepsy do not have a problem with using modern computer screens, as they usually operate at a very high flicker frequency.  Computers with flatscreen monitors, such as laptops, have a liquid crystal display (also called LCD or TFT) that does not flicker. This makes them even less likely to trigger seizures. What is often more important than the type of screen is what is happening on the screen. For example, a flickering image or changing geometric pattern could trigger a seizure.
    The organisation Ofcom regulates material shown on TV to avoid causing photosensitive seizures. Ofcom restricts the flash rate to 3 flashes or less per second, and restricts the area of screen allowed for flashing lights or alternating patterns.
    Because of the size of the screen and the low intensity it is rare for seizures to be triggered by watching films in a cinema, or by hand-held miniature screens.
    Interactive whiteboards, sometimes used in schools, have not been found to be a particular trigger for photosensitive epilepsy, although triggers can be individual.
    A seizure can sometimes happen by chance while someone is watching TV or playing computer games or watching television, and may be a coincidence.  Tiredness brought on by watching the screen for a long time, or excitement when playing computer games, may also be a factor.

    Can disco lights trigger photosensitivity?

    Coloured lights do not usually cause a problem if they do not flash quickly.  However, deep red flashing lights, such as rear cycle lights, and strobe (flashing) lights can trigger seizures, especially if it is dark. If you know you are photosensitive, it may be best to avoid strobe lights, or cover one eye if you are suddenly exposed to them.
    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) recommends that strobe lighting in nightclubs or public performances is kept to a frequency of four hertz (flashes per second) or less.

    There have been examples of bans based on this regulation:
    The promo for Kylie’s upcoming single ‘Wow’ was due for a world premiere on Channel 4 on Wednesday night, but it was pulled after TV watchdogs found it broke guidelines.
    Ofcom found the video’s use of strobe lighting effects meant the promo was unbroadcastable as it could prompt epileptic fits.
    A spokesperson for Channel 4 says a revised video will be shown, but Kylie’s now lost her high profile slot.
    “We are waiting for the new version to be ready. It will be show on Music Playlist,” they state.

    On a similar note:

    You might think there’d be a great many reasons to criticise a Westlife performance on The X Factor – schmaltz, insincerity and over-reliance on standing from a stool after a key change, for example.
    However, Ofcom were more concerned about the physical effect the lasers employed by the show’s lighting department might have on light-senstive sufferers of epilepsy.
    And it turns out their fears might’ve been worthwhile, as the light intensity of the lasers in that show turned out to be five times as intense as they’re legally allowed to be.

    Monday, 19 July 2010

    The Brit Vid...

    So, 100 or so shots later here it is...

    Well done to all of you, fantastic effort to pull this together! 12C are still working on a documentary on the MVDay so look out for that

    Friday, 9 July 2010

    Practice Pitch(2) How to Pitch

    So, you've picked your track, written up two paragraphs about the band + genre, and discovered which track you will be working on for a pitch ...
    Time now to start in on that pitch!
    In September you will be expected to do this for a track of your choosing (this may be in groups rather than individually) with a considerable degree of detail. We'd still like some detail for this practice pitch, but your guiding principle is that you successfully communicate your visual vision!
    That means that whatever weird and wonderful picture you've formed in your head could be described to me by anyone priviliged enough to witness your pitch!

    You can look at some examples of how students elsewhere (from Latymer) summarised and presented their ideas for a music video at the bottom of this post, and take inspiration from these. I'll run through some of the aspects I'd like you to address, and the format/s for your pitch; a shorter version of this will be issued.

     your guiding principle is that you successfully communicate your visual vision!

    WHAT TO ADDRESS IN YOUR PITCH [yes indeed, there is a dress + a pitch pictured...]:
    • name the act/track, and which student put this forward!
    • summarise for us the nature (especially genre) of the band/act: a brief history; what they're best known for
    • what do we expect to see in music videos within this genre (ie give us some idea of codes + conventions, citing examples if you can)
    • run through some of the ideas you con

    Thursday, 8 July 2010

    Practice Pitch(1) Picking a Track

    Just as the Music Video Day has hopefully got us thinking about the best way to approach a film shoot, and be organised for this, the aim for the practice pitch is to get you thinking about different ideas on and approaches to your own music video. This is intended to be quite fun and light-hearted, but should help highlight aspects of the work required for your 'proper' pitch come September!
    To get us going I need you to do three things:
    1. Pick a song which you have as MP3 (cannot have sexually explicit lyrics or swearing)
    2. Create a blog post, with one paragraph about the band/track (some hyperlinks, including a link to the lyrics, would be useful!), and a 2nd paragraph...
    3. some idea of what we expect to see in typical music videos from within this genre; common codes and conventions (links to examples would be useful).
    We'll gather all the tracks together, hit shuffle and you'll each be assigned another track to work up a pitch

    One quick example from me, done in a few mins, so not necessarily as stupendous and well researched as yours... Do note though that I made sure there were various hyperlinks embedded to enable anyone to find out more than I've written in my one-para summary! I also found useful links to enable anyone who gets Dread Zeppelin, my submitted track, to view a range of vidz from within their genre.

    TRACK: DREAD ZEPPELIN: "Heartbreaker (At The End Of Lonely Street)"

    Tuesday, 6 July 2010

    IFEST - the 'Media bit'

    OVERALL AIM: To produce a filmed documentary + a blog featuring many aspects of the day, including 'vox pops' + some brief interviews
    RESOURCES: Your wits, charm, camcorder, still camera, cinematographic + photographic skills, pen + paper, a copy of the IFEST programme, + some class time after the day to bring the results together
    YOUR ROLES: In pairs, pick out any ONE (more if you wish!) aspect of the day you'd like to produce a short (up to 5mins) edited piece on (including some vox pops and/or interviews), as well as a typed blog entry with some still images
    SITUATIONS VACANT - EDITORIAL POSTS: We will need to appoint two pairs to an additional role, that of (i) editors of the documentary and (ii) blog editors
    More details later, but editing means not just compiling the submitted footage, but deciding on how to present + link this: thinking about options such as presenter, subtitles, graphics

    Thursday, 1 July 2010


    Your next steps with this (12D; I'll discuss this separately with 12C) are...
    1. You will need a complete list, with timings, of all the shots that appear in your group's section of the actual video
    2. If you don't have this it would be worth dividing this task, and the following, amongst yourselves...
    3. Work through your group's footage (John has been working at making this available for each group) and begin compiling, in the sequence they appear in the video, the shots that will appear in the final edit
    4. We'll need to appoint two or more overall editors who can take the 4 sections, now cut into sequence with approximate timings, and create the final video
    5. Review your footage; are there any shots missing or that would ideally be re-done? If so, discuss the feasibility of shooting these (perhaps today) quickly enough so that they can be included in the overall final cut
    6. Discuss your experiences of the Music Video Day. What went well? What didn't go so well?! Now that you've done it, what tips or advice would you give somebody if they were about to begin on your task? Being specific, what lessons have you learned from the day? What potential problems that you might face when working on the A2 coursework did the day throw up, and what solutions might there be for these? Its vitally important you blog on this after proper reflection - discuss within your group, and across groups too.
    7. Can you apply some of your learning to at least one spin-off video? Thinking about aspects such as the media language used in the actual video and your version of this, or the particular challenges involved in this recreation, perhaps even highlighting things that went slightly wrong and what you learned from this, see if you can to cut a short video blending your footage, possibly brief clips from the original, and on-screen text (use LiveType). The aim for these, in addition to posting on your blogs, is to publish them on the screens around the school. That means you're not including audio (you could always produce a version with, and a version without, sound), and need to be clear that your content for appropriate (+instructive!) for all age ranges in the school.
    8. Have you any material you think would be of interest to the 12C team producing a documentary on the day? You could also offer yourself for brief on-camera interviews if, after reflecting and discussing the day, you think you can add some useful commentary to the doc. on the day and the learning that took place!
    9. If you really want to, you could work on a blooper reel - but please don't be including any inappropriate language or other material on anything you publish on your blog!
    There is a lot of work in there, and we will have to spend some time getting organised for IFEST, so you are aiming to complete these various tasks within a week's worth of lessons!
    Do try to split the work up within your group!
    Write out the separate tasks so you're clear on what these are, and agree on who does which (perhaps you might collaborate on any spin-off videos, but work on earlier aspects separately?)


    I've already briefed you on this, but here's a breakdown of what we do through to the end of summer term (with more detail on each aspect to follow in separate posts):
    BRITNEY VID: Each group is now responsible for doing an initial edit of their footage; sequencing the shots as they appear in the video, + working through any additional footage to use in a blooper reel and for the documentary being produced by 12C. We need to appoint a pair/trio to take responsibility (and credit!) for editing the final video + producing one or more text-led variations. 12C will be focussed on producing their
    IFEST: We have been asked to produce media texts documenting the day, so will work on two (if anyone has a particular interest and wants to, you can add to this: radio, newspaper, website etc): a documentary + a blog. We will discuss + negotiate the style of the documentary. Everyone, working in pairs, will pick out at least one aspect of IFEST and produce a short filmed piece, blog article + photos on this. Again, we need to appoint editors.
    PRACTICE PITCH: Everyone submits an MP3 of a track, with 2 paragraphs on this on their blog; we'll assign everyone a track randomly (including some I'll throw in, + John's!), and work towards presenting a pitch, following research, on what you'd so for this in terms of producing a music video.
    BLOGGING! - This is the start of your A2 work so strive to ensure you are blogging on all this work!

    Monday, 28 June 2010


    DRAFT 2: I've altered the timetable discussed in Monday's lesson, on the basis that the classroom scenes could be shot during the 9.10-9.45 slot, these having no lipsynching requirement, which frees up some time for the other sections.
    Before detailing that, lets just explore...

    The concept is derived from a school which consistently wins the BBC award for music video, and is intended as a major stepping stone on your way to your A2 production portfolio. The idea is straightforward: a day off normal timetable to work on (re)creating a whole music video.
    The day should highlight the critical importance for planning, but also get you thinking about issues around locations, costume and directing (including choreography) to take just three. We will closely review the lessons learnt following IFEST, though I will ask that you blog on your experiences, and what lessons/tips you've gained from this by Tuesday 6th!
    It would be impossible to replicate this production through normal lessons, and requires you to work within a small team and as part of a larger production.
    Remember the importance of using video throughout your blog to illustrate and bring to life the process followed in eventually creating your own fully fledged music video - most aspects of the day provide good opportunities for this! If you do intend filming any diary/behind-the-scenes-style footage, please pass any footage you're happy with on to the 12C documentary team via John.
    As much as there are a great many opportunities to learn invaluable lessons from the day, it is also intended as FUN!!!

    Yes, I did slip a homework in there! For Tuesday the 6th, please blog (including some video footage ideally) on what lessons or insights you've picked up from the day.

    In addition to the above learning outcomes (and hopefully enjoyment!) there will of course be an end product: a fully edited IGS Media version of Britney's classic hit. On top of this I'd also like to see one or more re-edited text-led versions, suitable for use on the school screens, which provide some context and detail, tackling, for example, certain sequences and exploring the Media Language used (and why Britney's original director went for this; what it is trying to signify), or even the challenges faced in recreating these. It would be great if someone could use the final vid to produce a guide to some common codes and conventions of music videos!
    12C will also be producing a documentary (possibly two...) on the day.
    These are examples of opportunities I've tried to create for you all with your UCAS applications in mind - everyone will have the opportunity to take responsibility for editing at least one production in June/July, which provides a means of demonstrating how you embody all the attributes of 'ICREST'!!!

    We will be filming around the school on what will be a normal day for everyone else, so it is important that you try not to disturb anyone! Please also remember you must bring trainers for the gym scenes (even if you're shooting documentary footage!). Guys, a white shirt (to use as a blouse) would be useful, but fear not about the skirts - I've borrowed some from those nice folks in PE!

    We'll meet back in F6 at various points during the day. You will split up to shoot some scenes, and practice lipsynching, in the morning, though for most of the day we will all come together and be extras in each other's sections.
    Lipsynching practice will take place in one of F6, S2, D4, C5 - these have all been booked for the entire day.
    Corrdior scenes will be shot on the top floor of the new building, outside the Arts + Humanities classrooms M8-13. These can only be shot during lunchtime, which adds complications to our timetable - please be timely for the start of this and all other shoots!
    Gym scenes will be shot in the gym(!), not the sportshall; trainers must be worn by everyone for this.
    Carpark scenes will be shot directly outside the front entrance, on the grass verge rather than the roadway itself.
    Classroom scenes will be shot in S2, D4 or C5 - that team has to decide on the best location.

    We have arranged 4 teams, each responsible for shooting all shots within 1 of the 4 locations, + 12C will be shooting documentary footage (see below).
    The basic idea is that we meet immediately after registration to review the day's schedule, check we've everything we need and that everyone knows what roles they're fulfilling throughout the day, until break time;  you practice lipsynching with your team in one of the four classrooms assigned to us for the day; you then, in your team, shoot any material which doesn't require more than 1, 2 or 3 on screen (depending on size of team), before we come together to shoot the GYM, CARPARK and CORRIDOR scenes.
    When we start shooting these, you will all be extras at some point, depending on what was agreed during Tuesday's lesson.
    The CLASSROOM team will shoot their material in the morning (9.10 or before), and will practice lipsynching after break.

    12C's ROLE: 12C will be shooting a fly-on-the-wall documentary throughout the day; please engage with any requests they may give you for brief interviews, even if it is to suggest a better time to shoot it! 12C will also, however, be performing too, and you should factor in one shot as Britney for Megan, George, Alex, Callam and Amy, and include these five in your calculations for extras when completing the call sheet. [We are currently discussing whether or not to go with an on-screen presenter, which may rule one person out as an extra, but not as a Britney!]

    2ND DRAFT SCHEDULE [altered after Monday's lesson]

    8.45 Meet in F6; check call sheets + troubleshoot any issues; sign for any equipment
    9.10-9.45 GYM/CORRIDOR/CARPARK teams: Practice lipsynching (each group assigned different classroom) - consider recording some of this!
    CLASSROOM Team: shoot classroom section; will need 2-3 extras + teacher figure for 2 shots - start as soon as day's schedule has been reviewed and agreed from 8.45
    10-10.40 GYM/CORRIDOR/CARPARK teams: Shoot any CUs/2-3shots your group can achieve without any extras
    CLASSROOM Team: complete classroom section if necessary; otherwise practice lipsynching in 1 of the 3 assigned rooms
    10.40 Meet in F6; sign for/check in any equipment; start uploading footage - pass photocopy of annotated shotlist to JC/me; change as required
    10.50-11.30 Shoot gym scenes
    11.30-12.10 Lunch [time can be made depending on which shots you're assigned to]
    It is vital that if you have been asked to perform in the corridor scenes that you go promptly
    12.10-12.50 Shoot corrdior scenes
    12.50-1 Meet in F6; sign for/check in any equipment; start uploading footage - pass photocopy of annotated shotlist to JC/me; change as required
    1.05-1.45 Shoot carpark scenes
    1.45-2 Break/time to change [try to discuss any additional shots needed]
    2-2.10 Meet in F6; sign for/check in any equipment; start uploading footage - pass photocopy of annotated shotlist to JC/me; change as required
    2.10-2.40 Meet in F6 - opportunity to arrange any additional shots; review footage, pass on copies of annotated shot lists + return equipment as required.

    2.40-home Meet in F6, ensure copies of all shot lists have been handed in with tapes, and all equipment signed back in.

    The answer depends somewhat on which team you are in, though everybody should bring trainers.
    We have ONE blond wig, but feel free to bring your own - that would certainly make the morning shoot, when we split up, a lot less complicated! (Otherwise, we'll have to try and share a wig around 3 different locations, the classroom scenes having already been shot)
    Each team can fill you in on Tuesday on the precise details, eg If you are in the classroom scenes, you will need black shoes, a white blouse, skirt (we have some skirts from PE for the guys!), a pink scrunchie, folder and pen, + grey cardie for Britney (more than one size as more than 1 Britney!!!), but as a quick guide:
    Even if it is just a different top/bottoms, it would be good if you came with clothing to be included in all sections: the classroom + corridor scenes have the school uniforms (chaps with black blazers!); the gym some basketball players but mainly casual sportswear, and the carpark general casualwear.
    Lipstick and other makeup might be useful! (Including makeup remover!!!)
    As you're planning and shooting each section (and when you're practicing lipsynching!), you will want access to the actual video for guidance. I would ask that you arrange within your group to have the mp4 on one iPod or phone. It really helps your performers, especially the Britneys, if they can hear the tune, so aim to include an audio source. (You might find it good fun to re-edit a few shots with the audio you capture on the day! If you're game, it'd be great to have some of this for the documentary - please pass on to JC any such footage you're happy for us to use in this way)

    Just like any media production, this is a complex event which requires good planning on your part. It would have been useful to have denotated the original video in sequence, although it looks like there will not be time now for this. I have provided an example of how to break down the video into individual shots, plus sheets (there are plenty spare in F6 - help yourself to as many as you need) for noting the shots within your section. So, then, try to follow these steps before Music Video Day to help ensure we all get the most from it:
    1. DENOTATE (WITH TIMINGS) THE SHOTS IN YOUR LOCATIONS: - You should find that there is some repetition within these! You need to take careful note of the timing in the video (so that it can then be inserted into the edited production), plus any camera movement, shot + framing, mise-en-scene (including clothing + props), and any lyrics sang at this point, as set out on the guide sheets
    2. NOTE WHICH SEPARATE SHOTS YOU NEED TO TAKE IN A TEAM SHOTLIST: - You should find that as there is much cross-cutting, and shots are shown in a non-linear fashion, including some repetition, that you do not actually need to shoot the precise number of shots you've noted in STEP ONE; some continuous shots may be broken down into several segments through cross-cutting
    3. LOOK AGAIN AT YOUR TEAM SHOTLIST! - Think carefully; you have a minimum of 40 minutes (possibly another 40mins later in the day for reshoots, additional shots) ... can you realistically shoot ALL the shots you've listed? Are there elements you'll have to compromise on? Examples may be crane shots, props such as cars, dance moves etc
    4. ALLOCATE AT LEAST ONE SHOT AS BRITNEY TO EACH TEAM MEMBER, + 1 OR 2 FROM 12C: - Everyone shall have their chance to shine and express their inner diva! It will make for one very strange looking music video ... but then that might just make for an interesting concept video (applying Goodwin's theory of the 3 types of MV) in itself...
    5. EACH TEAM MEMBER TO BE GIVEN RESPONSIBILITY FOR SHOOTING + DIRECTING AT LEAST ONE SHOT: - There are three distinct roles then you should each fulfil within your location team: Britney(!), cinematographer (person who takes the shot, and is responsible for its framing and any movement), + director, who should work with the cinematographer, but also explicitly direct the performers - provide some guidance and feedback. Let them know precisely what you are after ... just don't be a demagogue and blast one of your amateur dancers!
    6. CREATE A CALL SHEET FROM YOUR REVISED TEAM SHOTLIST: - This is a variation on a shotlist which would be used by 2nd Asst. Directors, or PAs (Production Assts.), to organise the shoot. This would be reviewed at the start of a day's shoot and checked against as the day wore on (you would also typically have a continuity director, but this video is going to be a very postmodern, slightly surreal production, so I wouldn't worry too much about continuity!). A call sheet will include the shot details (in order you intend to shoot), timing (include video timing for reference), mise-en-scene etc PLUS a specific note on WHO will feature in each shot. You can break down who precisely your extras will be on Tuesday. ALSO note any potential problems you can foresee. If you were shooting all day, and using a professional crew, you would include target times to wrap each shot (see ehow site)
    7. MISE-EN-SCENE: LIST ALL PROPS/COSTUME/MAKE-UP REQUIRED: Again, time will be very, very tight on the day, so try to think through what you will need in terms not just of personnel/cast (see STEP 6) but also costume, props, make-up and all other aspects of mise-en-scene. We don't currently have any lighting equipment, but you could consider whether you could innovate here. Don't neglect to consider make-up, especially to help make your gentlemen Britneys look remotely feminine! [But also don't forget to include supplies of makeup remover!!!]
    8. ASSIGN A PRODUCER: - You need someone to take an overview of the shoot and strive to keep the shoot to the timetable noted on the call sheet. Strictly speaking, this is often a '2nd Asst. Director', though a producer would be well aware that time is money and would be keen to keep things moving! This role includes keeping notes as you go - there should be an opportunity in the afternoon to attempt some reshoots or shots you ran out of time for (sorry corridor folk, but you're on the tightest schedule of all there and won't really have that 2nd chance!) [read more about film crews here + here]
    9. CHOREOGRAPHY? Just how ambitious do you want to be? The more faithful you aim to be with the dancing, the slower it will be to set up shots, and the more problems you may face with extras! Think very carefully about how many extras you want to include; even if the video has 20 in a scene, is it practical for you to aim for the same? Will you have time to work on this during the lipsynch slot (see schedule, below?)
    10. TIME NOW, PLEASE... One last time, review your plans: can you achieve all this in the time available? Is there a Plan B if you quickly come to realise that you've been too ambitious? Note carefully on your call sheet which shots you think may cause most difficulty and be prepared to cut these if time does go against you on the day.
    This is a rough example of a call sheet:
    Sample Call Sheet                                                            

    Music Video Day is on Wednesday June 30th!!!

    ...AND FINALLY...
    Not just the two words that made Sir Trevor McDonald a legend (see him here expounding on the brain train - which you may want to track down after Wednesday!)...
    You've been set a very demanding task here, with limited preparation time. In some ways, this is quite realistic - as you'll find when researching the music video, budgets for these are getting ever tighter, which means timetables for producing these are also being slashed. Its worth reflecting on how you might have managed, what steps you'd have taken, if you found yourself commissioned to shoot a music video in one day, even a recreation such as this!
    In the anticipation of a busy but successful day, thank you for all your effort on this!

    8.45 Meet in F6; check call sheets + troubleshoot any issues
    9.10-9.45 Practice lipsynching (each group assigned different classroom)

    10-10.40 Shoot CUs/2-3shots your group can achieve without any extras
    10.40 Meet in F6
    10.50-11.30 Shoot classroom scenes
    11.30-12.10 Lunch [time can be made depending on which shots you're assigned to]
    12.10-12.50 Shoot corrdior scenes
    12.50-1 Meet in F6/time to change
    1.05-1.45 Shoot outside scenes
    1.45-2 Break/time to change
    2-2.40 Gym Scenes
    2.40 Meet in F6, ensure all shots logged and labelled